we live upon a finite planet on which the compounded growth of any material process or quantity inevitably leads to a crash. The economy requires ever-increasing energy supplies, mostly from fossil fuels, whereas coal, oil, and natural gas are nonrenewable, depleting, and climate-changing resources.
Of course, that is only true if the human race limits it's inputs to those on the planet and doesn't develop fusion power. Either bringing in resources from off-planet or unlocking fusion sends the equilibrium of in a wildly different direction. And if there's one thing humans are good at, it's getting around "inherent" limits.
Just fusion alone (which we have had some success with for over 60 years) would give us the energy needed to run the carbon cycle backwards and transfer all that carbon from the atmosphere back into the ground. There are vast areas of the Earth that are not feasible for growing crops or livestock, but with cheap water and fertilizers they would flourish.
Population growth can be reversed too: Just pay people enough to have zero or one child per couple. Offer them security in their old age, and the need for lots of kids is gone.