So what do you call it - Capitalism, or Socialism - if a person became wealthy as a result of using their time and money....

That right there is capitalism, plain and simple. Entrepreneurism if you put a finer point on it.

It would be a mixed system if half his "wealth" went to the state to insure that everyone was well taken care of and...If a person worked and the state became wealthier, thus increasing the wealth of all then it would be a socialist system.

Whether his endeavor was a good thing environmentally or a bad thing doesn't effect the system. Sustainability is an entirely new concept.
Survival hasn't so much been an issue before either...
"Be yourself; everyone else is already taken."— Oscar Wilde